Main Menu

Paper Formatting

Paper Formatting
Please follow the instructions mentioned below in preparing the manuscripts. If papers do not conform closely to these instructions they may be returned to their authors.
Language: a) Papers must be submitted in English.
                   b)
Use common standards of American grammar.
Text length:

Full Paper or Review Article: Maximum 3,000 words.
Short Communication Paper: Maximum 2,000 words.
Authors willing to submit Review Article must present a Synopsis.
Organizing the Paper
Title and Authors Information: The Title should be a brief phrase describing the contents of the paper. It is discouraged to start title with ‘Study on’, ‘Effect of’, and ‘Influence of.’ An ideal title briefly identifies the subject, indicates the purpose of the study, and introduces key concept. The Title Page should include full names of all the authors' and affiliations (institutional addresses), the name of the corresponding author should be asterisk (*) and the corresponding author’s phone, fax and E-mail information should be provided. Present addresses of authors should appear as a footnote. E-mail address should be given of all the co-author(s).
Abstract: The Abstract should be informative and completely self-explanatory, briefly present the topic, state the scope of the experiments, indicate significant data, and point out major findings and conclusions. An ideal abstract may contain background, rationale, objectives, materials & methods, results and conclusions. The Abstract should be100 to 150 words in length. Complete sentences, active verbs, and the third person should be used, and the abstract should be written in the past tense. Standard nomenclature should be used and abbreviations should be avoided. No literature should be cited.
Keywords:
A minimum of five (5) keywords that will provide in alphabetical order separated with semicolons, not included in the title. Scientific or systematic name of plants and fungi etc. should be written in italic. eg. Triticum aestivum; in vitro; in vivo. A list of non-standard abbreviations should be added and clearly written at the last page of the manuscript. In general, non-standard abbreviations should be used only when the full term is very long and used often. Each abbreviation should be spelled out and introduced in parentheses the first time it is used in the text. Only recommended SI units should be used. Authors should use the solidus presentation (mg/ml). Standard abbreviations (such as GDP, ATP, PCR and DNA) need not be defined.
Introduction:
The introduction typically describes the scope of the document and gives the brief explanation or summary of the document. It may also explain certain elements that are important to the essay if explanations are not part of the main text. The readers can have an idea about the following text before they actually start reading it. A good technical report/thesis Introduction does four things:
1. It introduces the problem and motivation for the study.

  • Tell the reader what the topic of the report is.
  • Explain why this topic is important or relevant.
2. It provides a brief summary of previous engineering and/or scientific work on the topic.
  • Here you present an overview what is known about the problem.  You would typically cite earlier studies conducted on the same topic and/or at this same site, and in doing so, you should reveal the yawning void in the knowledge that your brilliant research will fill.
  • If you are writing a thesis, you’re going to need a full-blown literature review with very specific details of all of the scientific or engineering work done on the topic to date.  This literature review is usually contained in its own chapter, particularly for PhD theses.  In the introduction, just present a brief overview, sufficient to establish the need for your research.
3. It outlines the purpose and specific objectives of the project.
  • These are linked to solving the problem or filling the knowledge gap identified above.
  • Often, the specific objectives are listed in point form. Sometimes a numbered list is used.
4. It provides a ‘road map’ for the rest of the report.
  • This is so that the reader knows what’s coming and sees the logic of your organization.
  • Describe (in approximately one sentence each) the contents of each of the report/thesis chapters. 
What doesn’t go in your Introduction?
  • Never put any results or decisions in the Introduction.  Just because you are writing it last doesn’t mean you should give away the story. After all – it’s called the “Introduction” for a reason
Materials and Methods should be complete enough to allow experiments to be reproduced. However, only truly new procedures should be described in detail; previously published procedures should be cited, and important modifications of published procedures should be mentioned briefly. Capitalize trade names and include the manufacturer's name and address. Subheadings should be used. Methods in general use need not be described in detail.  
Results should be presented with clarity and precision. The results should be written in the past tense when describing findings in the authors' experiments. Previously published findings should be written in the present tense. Results should be explained, but largely without referring to the literature. Discussion, speculation and detailed interpretation of data should not be included in the Results but should be put into the Discussion section.
Discussion should interpret the findings in view of the results obtained in this study and compare to past studies on this topic. The Results and Discussion sections can include subheadings, and when appropriate, both sections can be combined.
Conclusion State the conclusions in a few sentences at the end of the paper.
Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc should be brief.  
Tables should be kept to a minimum and be designed to be as simple as possible. Tables are to be typed single-spaced throughout, including headings and footnotes. Each table should be on a separate page, numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and supplied with a heading and a legend. Tables should be self-explanatory without reference to the text. The details of the methods used in the experiments should preferably be described in the legend instead of in the text. The same data should not be presented in both table and graph form or repeated in the text. Tables should be prepared in Microsoft Word and the exact positions of each table should be cited in the body of the article (Table 1).
Figure legends should be typed in numerical order on a separate sheet. Graphics should be prepared using applications capable of generating high resolution GIF, TIFF, JPEG or PowerPoint before pasting in the Microsoft Word manuscript file. Use roman numerals to designate figures and upper case letters for their parts (Figure 1). Begin each legend with a title and include sufficient description so that the figure is understandable without reading the text of the manuscript. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the text.  
References
Authors are responsible for the accuracy of their references. References should be cited in the text. The author should confront partial results with data published by other authors whose names and year of publication are to be cited by including them in the text directly Damadi (2014) or indirectly (Aliloo and Shokati 2011), (Prasai et al. 2015). It is strongly recommended that the author/s should use the updated references (recently 10 years) unless the references at materials and methods section. List should be arranged alphabetically according to the surname of the first author and set out as in the following examples: 
Journals, Magazines, Newspapers In Print Format s General Form
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article, Title of Journal, xx(XX), xxx-xxx.
NOTE: The journal title and the volume number are in italics. The issue number in parenthesis is in regular type.
One Author
Turner, R. A. (2007). Coaching and consulting in multicultural contexts. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59(4), 241-243.
Two to Six Authors [List all authors]
Brainerd, C. J., Reyna, V. F., Wright, R., & Mojardin, A. H. (2003). Recollection rejection: False-memory editing in children and adults. Psychological Review, 110(4), 762-784.
More than Six Authors [List the first six authors, then use et al.]
Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., et al. (2000). An experimental evaluation of theory- based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 843-856.
Magazine Article
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Beyond the melting pot. Time, 135, 28-31.
Newspaper Article with No Author and Discontinuous Pages
Generic Prozac debuts. (2001, August 3). The Washington Post, pp. E1, E4.
Books, reports, etc. In print format
General Form
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
One Author
Nagel, P. C. (1992). The Lees of Virginia: Seven generations of an American family. New York: Oxford University Press.
Corporate Author with an Edition and Published by the Corporate Author
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anonymous Author
Guidelines and application form for directors, 1990 summer seminar for school teachers. (1988). Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Humanities.
Chapter in a Book
Burghardt, G. M. (1984). On the origins of play. In P. K. Smith (Ed.), Play in animals and humans (pp. 5-42). Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell.
ONLINE JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS
Article from E-journal website
Ray, O. (2004). How the mind hurts and heals the body. American Psychologist 59, 29-40. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org//journals/releases /amp59129.pdf
Lodewijkx, H. F. M. (2001, May 23). Individual-group continuity in cooperation and competition under varying communication conditions. Current Issues in Social Psychology, 6(12), 166-182. Retrieved from http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.6.12.htm
NOTE: The full URL (or web address) is given with e- journal websites (not from databases). There is no period at the end of a URL. Break a long URL before punctuation. Right Click on the URL and remove the hyperlink to eliminate the blue type and underline.  
Short Communications: Short Communications are limited to a maximum of two figures and one table. They should present a complete study that is more limited in scope than is found in full-length papers. The items of manuscript preparation listed above apply to Short Communications with the following differences: (1) Abstracts are limited to 100 words; (2) instead of a separate Materials and Methods section, experimental procedures may be incorporated into Figure Legends and Table footnotes; (3) Results and Discussion should be combined into a single section.
Submit Manuscripts
Please read the Authors Guide before submitting your manuscript.

Electronic submission of manuscripts is strongly encouraged, provided that the text, tables, and figures are included in a single Microsoft Word file.
Submit manuscripts as e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at: submit@ijbssr.com.
An acknowledge mail bearing the manuscript number would be mailed to the corresponding author same day or within 48 hours of receipt. The cover letter should include the corresponding author's full names, academic title, school address and telephone/fax numbers and should be in an e-mail message sent to the Editor, with the file, whose name should begin with the corresponding author's surname, as an attachment.